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Un rappel : "Science and technology Policy" (Encyclopédie EOLSS) existe en version electronique

lundi 9 janvier 2012, par rigas

To all my fans : the EOLSS Encyclopedia section on "Science and Technology Policy" (R. ARVANITIS, ed.) has been published in electronic version in two electronic books. It can be ordered online here. You can read the electronic version of the introduction for free on my website.

Pour ceux qui l’ignorent , la version éléctronique de la section "Science and Technology Policy" (R. ARVANITIS, éd) a été publiée sous forme de ebook et peut être achetée sur le site de EOLSS. L’introduction se trouve sur ce site gratuitement !

La table des matières se trouve ci-dessous ou en fichier PDF.

- PDF Contents : "Science and Technology Policy

PDF - 143 ko

Référence :
Science and Technology Policy - Volume 1
No. of Pages : 358
ISBN : 978-1-84826-058-0 (eBook)
ISBN : 978-1-84826-508-0 (Print Volume)

Science and Technology Policy - Volume 2
No. of Pages : 365
ISBN : 978-1-84826-059-7 (eBook)
ISBN : 978-1-84826-509-7 (Print Volume)


CONTENTS

VOLUME I

Science and Technology Policy 1
Rigas Arvanitis, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Questions of definitions
    • 2.1. Science and technology, R&D, and other statistical categories
    • 2.2. The multiple dimensions of the research endeavor
    • 2.3. The real scope of science and technology policies
  • 3. The new social and institutional framework
    • 3.1. Science and technology as closer endeavors
    • 3.2. The increasing role of private companies and private R&D
    • 3.3. The changing context of S&T policy making
      • 3.3.1. The environment
      • 3.3.2. Users demand more participation
      • 3.3.3. Information technologies contribute to a new economy
      • 3.3.4. Changing North–South relations and the emergence of the transition economies
      • 3.3.5. Collaborations, associations, and networks as new actors
    • 3.4. Globalization as a challenge to national policy making
    • 3.5. S&T policy in the learning economy
  • 4. The historical evolution of S&T policies
  • 5. The domains of science and technology policies
    • 5.1. Support for higher and technical education
    • 5.2. Direct support for research institutions
    • 5.3. Indirect public support
    • 5.4. Support for innovation-oriented research activities
    • 5.5. Promotion of science and technology to the public
    • 5.6. Management, analysis, and policy bodies for science and technology
  • 6. Actors in the performance of R&D
    • 6.1. Universities and the academic sector
    • 6.2. Public research institutes
    • 6.3. Public agencies
    • 6.4. NGOs and non-profit foundations
    • 6.5. Research units of the private sector
    • 6.6. A complex web of institutions
  • 7. Policy making bodies
  • 8. Policy making processes
    • 8.1. The main moments of a policy making process
      • 8.1.1. Definition of the general objectives and what is at stake (strategic analysis)
      • 8.1.2. Definition of modes of action (policy analysis)
      • 8.1.3. Programming and budgeting (allocation of resources)
      • 8.1.4. Execution (management, operational phase, and follow-up or monitoring)
      • 8.1.5. Evaluation
    • 8.2. The pivotal role of evaluation
    • 8.3. The use of quantitative indicators
  • 9. The innovation system and innovation policy
    • 9.1. Main characteristics of innovation policies
    • 9.2. The debate on the need for innovation policies
  • 10. The international dimensions of S&T policies
    • 10.1. The elements of a new international scientific world
    • 10.2. The adoption of a regional perspective
    • 10.3. Toward an international system of research ?
      11. Conclusions : science and technology policy needs
    • 11.1. The need for ambitious frameworks
    • 11.2. The need for public debate
    • 11.3. The need for social sciences
    • 11.4. Toward a professionalization of science policy making
    • 11.5. Science and technology policy making for sustainable development

Social Sciences, Science Policy Studies, Science Policy-making 62
Jean-Jacgues Salomon, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Centre Science, Technologie et Société,Paris, France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Field of Science Policy Studies and its uses
    • 2.1. Why Should Science be Supported ? In What Proportions ?
    • 2.2. The Measurement of Innovation and its Systemic Conditions
    • 2.3. Science, Technology and Development Economics
  • 3. A Research Agenda

Social Appropriability of Scientific and Technological Knowledge 79
Pablo Kreimer, Institute for Social Studies of Science and Technology , National University of Quilmes, and CONICET researcher, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Hernán Thomas, Institute for Social Studies of Science and Technology, National University of Quilmes, REDES Group and National University of Luján, Argentina

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Existing Approaches
    • 2.1. The linear innovation model approach
    • 2.2. The approaches in the field of economics of innovation
    • 2.3. The analysis of intellectual property and patenting
    • 2.4. The sociological approaches
  • 3. The integration of social knowledge

Science and Technology Policy Professionals : Jobs, Work, Knowledge, and Values 92
Susan E. Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Careers in S&T Policy
  • 3. The Work of S&T Policy Professionals
  • 4. The Knowledge Base
  • 5. The Value of, and Values of, S&T Professionals

Community-Based Participatory Research : Implications for Science and Technology Decision-Making in the United States 104
Jill Chopyak, The Loka Institute, Amherst, Minnesota, USA
Khan Rahi, The Loka Institute, Amherst, Minnesota, USA
Babar Sher, The Loka Institute, Amherst, Minnesota, USA

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Public Participation in the Research Process : The History of Community-Based Research
  • 3. Community-Based Research in the USA
  • 4. Community-Based Research : Research for Change
  • 5. Community-Based Research in Action : Two Examples
  • 6. Public Funding of Community-Based Research
  • 7. Community-Based Research Networks
  • 8. Policy Recommendations : Building the Capacity of Community-Based Research Activities
  • 9. Conclusion

Justice, Human Rights and Ethics Issues in Science and Technology Policy 116
Paul B. Thompson, Department of Philosophy, Purdue University, USA

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ethics and Justice
  • 3. Ethics, Justice and Policy
    • 3.1. Consequentialism
    • 3.2. Kantian or Rights-based Ethics
    • 3.3. Communitarianism and Virtue Ethics
  • 4. Social Justice and Technical Change
    • 4.1. Technical Change as a Violation of Individual Rights
    • 4.2. Technical Change and Procedural Justice
  • 5. Social Justice and the Problem of Risk
  • 6. Conclusion

Current Issues in Agricultural Science and Technology Policy 132
G. Middendorf, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State University, USA
E. Ransom, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Richmond, USA
L. Busch, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University, USA and the Center for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, Lancaster University, UK

  • 1. Introduction and Context
    • 1.1. A Second Green Revolution ?
  • 2. Current Issues
    • 2.1. Institutional Changes
      • 2.1.1. Plant Breeders’ Rights vs. Farmers’ Rights
      • 2.1.2. Responses
  • 3. Technological Innovations
    • 3.1. New Biotechnologies
      • 3.1.1. What they are
      • 3.1.2. Increasing global inequality
      • 3.1.3. Consumer acceptance
      • 3.1.4. Labeling
      • 3.1.5. Allergens
      • 3.1.6. Food Safety
      • 3.1.7. Biosafety
      • 3.1.8. Policy Issues
    • 3.2. Other Technologies
  • 4. What is at Stake ?
    • 4.1. Environment
    • 4.2. Food Security
    • 4.3. Control of the Agrifood System
    • 4.4. The Public Interest
      • 4.4.1. Participation in Science and Technology Policy

Technology and the Environmental Market : Is Sustainability Bound to the Old World Order ? 151
Jordy Micheli, Department of Economics, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM- A), Mexico

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Technology and the Environment : From sustainability to the global market
  • 3. New Global Interests and Technological Cooperation
  • 4. New Interests Converge with the Old Terms of International Exchange (the « Kyoto Model » ?)
  • 5. Conclusion

The National Imperative : The State, Science and Technology, and Policy Evolution Circa 1400-2000 164
Ian Inkster, Nottingham Trent University, UK

  • 1. Introduction : Before the Beginning
  • 2. Statism—The Eighteenth Century
  • 3. Industrialization and Industrialism
  • 4. Public Science and Science Policy
  • 5. The Development Paradigm—The Short Twentieth Century
  • 6. The World Turned Upside-down—The New Climacteric
  • 7. Conclusions : Notions of Policy and the Private Sector

International Transfers of Technologies : Successes and Failures of Productive Systems and General Guidelines for Policy 182
Jean Ruffier, CNRS and Université Jean Moulin Lyon-3, France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Technology transfers are not limited to a contract
  • 3. An example of breakdown and repair
  • 4. A socio-technical construction
  • 5. Policies of technology transfer and productive efficiency
  • 6. Payments in the transfer of technologies
  • 7. Evaluation of productive efficiency
  • 8. Conclusion

Stakes and New Prospects for North-South Scientific Cooperation Policies 194
Jacques Gaillard, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD, formerly ORSTOM), Paris, France and Acting Director at the International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stockholm, Sweden

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Scientific Interference : Legitimacy and Duty
  • 3. Is Research for Development a Public Property ?
  • 4. Growing Disparities Requires Different Strategies
  • 5. Models and Approaches
    • 5.1. The Networks
    • 5.2. The Centers of Excellence
    • 5.3. North-South Partnership
  • 6. Institutional Functions and Models
  • 7. Coordination
    • 7.1. A Growing Capacity for European Development-oriented Research
    • 7.2. The Emergence of an International/Global/Worldwide System ?
  • 8. Conlusion

Science and Technology Policies in the Context of International Scientific Migration 210
Anne-Marie Gaillard, International Freelance Consultant, Sweden
Jacques Gaillard, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD, formerly ORSTOM), Paris, France and Acting Director at the International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stockholm, Sweden

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Historical Perspectives of International Scientific Migration
    • 2.1. Scientific Mobility : A Continuing Feature since Ancient Times
    • 2.2. Second Half of the Twentieth Century : Expansion of Mobility
  • 3. Losses and Gains – an Unclear Picture
    • 3.1. Brain Drain versus Brain Gain
      • 3.1.1. Gain for the North ?
      • 3.1.2. Loss for the South ?
    • 3.2. Determining the Loss or Gain : The Return
    • 3.3. The Situation Today : A Mixed Picture
  • 4. The Response of Scientific Policies
    • 4.1. An Incomplete Knowledge of Migratory Movements
    • 4.2. Attempts to find Global Remedies
    • 4.3. The National Policies for Retrieving Scientists and/or the Science
      • 4.3.1. Repatriation Programs for Elites
      • 4.3.2. The Setting-up of Scientific and Technological Networks
  • 5. Science Policies, Globalization, and Migrations

Globalisation of Industrial R&D : Policy Issues 232
OECD, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Trend in R & D Globalisation
    • 2.1. Inward and outward R&D FDI
    • 2.2. International strategic alliances
    • 2.3. International patenting
    • 2.4. Technology trade
    • 2.5. General implications
  • 3. Impacts On National Economies
    • 3.1. Policy concerns at the national level
    • 3.2. Spillovers to the rest of the economy
  • 4. Strategies For Enhancing The National System Of Innovation
    • 4.1. Framework conditions
    • 4.2. Network building
    • 4.3. An open question : the need for leading-edge clusters
  • 5. Conclusions

Management of Technology 258
Roberto E. Lopez-Martinez, Department of Systems Engineering, Institute of Engineering, National University of Mexico, Mexico

  • 1. Introduction. Recent Changes in Business and Technological Paradigms
  • 2. Management of Technology and its Role in the Process of Innovation
    • 2.1. The Evolution of the Notion of Innovation : The Nature of the Process and its Sources
  • 3. The Evolution of Management of Technology
    • 3.1. Networking and Technology Development
    • 3.2. The Development of Core Competencies, a New Approach to Strategic Management
  • 4. Integrated Strategic Management of Technology

Strategic Innovation Alliances 269
Nicholas S. Vonortas, Center for International Science and Technology Policy and Department of Economics, The George Washington University, Washington, USA
Patrick Murphy M., Center for International Science and Technology Policy and Department of Economics, The George Washington University, Washington, USA

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Strategic Innovation Alliances and Policy Considerations
    • 2.1. General S&T Policy that Impacts Alliances
    • 2.2. Complementary Alliances and Policies
      • 2.2.1. with a Government Member
      • 2.2.2. without a Government Member
    • 2.3. Adversarial Alliances and Policies
      • 2.3.1. Quasi-Concentration Alliances and Policies
      • 2.3.2. Pre-Competitive Alliances and Policies
    • 2.4. International Alliances and Policies
  • 3. Conclusions

The New Knowledge Economy and Science and Technology Policy 285
Geoffrey C. Bowker, Department of Communication, University of California, San Diego, USA

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The New Technoscientific Information Infrastructure
    • 2.1. What is Infrastructure ?
    • 2.2. Building an Infrastructure
    • 2.3. Ownership of Scientific and Technological Ideas and Data
    • 2.4. Sharing Data
  • 3. Working Collaboratively
    • 3.1. International Technoscience
    • 3.2. Distributed Collective Work
  • 4. Conclusion

Index 303

About EOLSS 311

VOLUME II

Policy-Making Processes and Evaluation Tools : S&T Indicators 1
Remi Barre, Director, Observatoire des Sciences et des Techniques (OST), France, and Visiting Professor, CNAM, Paris

  • 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. The National Research and Innovation System
    • 1.2. Scale and Object of the Decision on Research Activities
    • 1.3. The Nature of the Decisions and the Actors Involved
  • 2. S&T Indicators : Definition, Terms of Reference and Categories
    • 2.1. Definition
    • 2.2. Characteristics of S&T Indicators Useful for Decision-making
      • 2.2.1. The Reliability Criterion
      • 2.2.2. The Relevance Criterion
    • 2.3. The Categories of S&T Indicators : Input, Output, Interaction, Performance Indicators
      • 2.3.1. Inputs Indicators : The Human and Financial Resources
      • 2.3.2. Outputs Indicators : The Production of S&T Activities
      • 2.3.3. Interactions Indicators
      • 2.3.4. Performance Indicators
    • 2.4. Types of Indicators : Descriptive, Cognitive and Opinion Indicators
    • 2.5. Overview : Categories and Types of Indicators
  • 3. The Production and Use of S&T Indicators in Practice – the Question of the Data Sources
    • 3.1. S&T Indicators Production Activity
      • 3.1.1. The Relationship with the Client : Understanding the Demand and Conceiving the Product
      • 3.1.2. The Production of the S&T Indicators
    • 3.1.3 Bringing the Indicators to the Client and the Users
    • 3.2. Source Data for S&T Indicators Production
      • 3.2.1. From Source Data to Indicators
      • 3.2.2. Statistical Status of the Data
      • 3.2.3. Legal Status of Data
      • 3.2.4. Technical Status of Data
      • 3.2.5. Data Sources Providers
      • 3.2.6. Overview of Data Sources for S&T Indicators
  • 4. Indicators in the Decision-making Process : Limitations and Criticism
    • 4.1. The Possible Extreme Options for the Use of Indicators in Decision-making
    • 4.2. Criticism of the S&T Indicators : What do they Really Measure ?
    • 4.3. Towards a Realistic Role of S&T Indicators in Decision-making
  • 5. Perspectives and Conclusion
    • 5.1. Towards an Ethic of Indicators Production
    • 5.2. Towards ‘Socially Robust’ S&T Indicators
    • 5.3. Indicators as Tools for Democratic Decision Process in the S&T Area

Evaluation Practices in a Modern Context for Research : A (Re)view 22
Emilio Munoz, Unidad de Políticas Comparadas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Juan Espinosa de los Monteros, Unidad de Políticas Comparadas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain
Victor M. Diaz, Unidad de Políticas Comparadas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic Definitions of Research and Evaluation Methodologies
  • 3. Relationship between Science Policies, Promotion and Management of R&D Activities
    • 3.1. Policy for Science
    • 3.2. Policy by (means of) Science
    • 3.3. Science Policy in the 80s. The Systemic Concepts
  • 4. A General Frame of Reference for Evaluation from the European Perspective
    • 4.1. Procedures for the Evaluation of Socio-economic Programs
    • 4.2. The Research and Development (R&D) Programs
    • 4.3. Innovative Approaches to Evaluation of Research Activities
      • 4.3.1. The Different Roles of Research Institutes and Laboratories
      • 4.3.2. Evaluation of Societal Quality of Research
      • 4.3.3. The Transducing Model as an Alternative to R&D Programs Evaluation
  • 5. Emerging Issues on Evaluation from the United States
  • 6. Conclusions

Bibliometrics and Institutional Evaluation 42
Jane M. Russell, Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Bibliotecológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico
Ronald Rousseau, Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, KHBO, Oostende, Belgium

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Bibliometrics as an Evaluation Tool
    • 2.1. Role of Bibliometrics in Institutional Evaluation
    • 2.2. Methodological Considerations
  • 3. Output Evaluation
    • 3.1. Weighted Values of Publications
    • 3.2. Time Span
    • 3.3. Assigning Publications to different Research Units
  • 4. Citation Measurements
  • 5. Journal Impact Factors
  • 6. Relative Impact Indicators
  • 7. Future Trends and Perspectives

Science and Technology Policies in Africa 65
Roland Waast, Research Unit on Knowledge and Development, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Historical Background
    • 2.1. From Colonial Science to National Science
    • 2.2. North Africa, South Africa
    • 2.3. Capacities Established
    • 2.4. Recent Change, and the Factors Behind
  • 3. Current Policies : A Typology
    • 3.1. Laissez-faire
    • 3.2. Policies Recommended by Outside Bodies (especially the World Bank)
    • 3.3. New National Policies
    • 3.4. Towards Regional Policies ?
  • 4. Conclusion

Changing Policy in Science and Technology in India 82
V.V. Krishna, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Four Science and Technology Policy Cultures
    • 2.1. Political-Bureaucratic Culture
    • 2.2. Industry-Market Culture
    • 2.3. Academic Culture
    • 2.4. Civic Culture
  • 3. Different Phases of S&T Policy
    • 3.1. 1947 to 1970 : Phase of Optimism in "Policy for Science"
    • 3.2. 1970s to 1990 : From Optimism to Critical Evaluation
    • 3.3. After 1991 : New Economic Reforms, Liberalization, and Globalization
      • 3.3.1. Biotechnology
      • 3.3.2. Information Technology
  • 4. Changing Trends in Science as Social Institution
    • 4.1. Wealth from Knowledge
    • 4.2. Withering Boundaries and Hybrid Communities
    • 4.3. Incorporating Interests, Accountability, and a Reward Structure
    • 4.4. Management of R&D and Entrepreneurial Activity
  • 5. Conclusion

Science and Technology Policy in China 106
Shulin Gu, TsingHua University, Beijing, China and UNU/INTECH, Maastricht, The Netherlands

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Science and Technology Policy from the 1950s to the 1970s
    • 2.1. Investment in Science and Technology and Institutionalization of the Innovation System
    • 2.2. Innovation Performance : Why Was It Low ?
      • 2.2.1. Low Incentives
      • 2.2.2. Blocked Information Flows between Producers and Users of Technology
  • 3. Science and Technology Policy in the 1980s and 1990s : Market Reform and the Transformation of the Innovation System
    • 3.1. From "Technology Market" to Organizational Restructuring
    • 3.2. Technology Market and Transaction of Mature and Complementary Technologies
    • 3.3. The Transformation of the Innovation System in China
    • 3.4. "Innovative Recombination" and Learning in Economic Transition in China
    • 3.5. Successful Mobilization of Endogenous Capabilities and "Recombination Learning"
      • 3.5.1. The case of the TV Sector
      • 3.5.2. The Case of the Computer Software Sector
      • 3.5.3. "Innovative Recombination" of Capabilities"
  • 4. Conclusion

European Science and Technology Policy 133
Regina Gusmão, Technical Advisor, FAPESP, Brazil

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The International Context
  • 3. Formalization and Implementation of the EU Research Policy
    • 3.1. Evolution and legislative framework
    • 3.2. Principle of regulation
    • 3.3. Instruments for the Implementation and Funding of R&D Projects
    • 3.4. Links with other European S&T cooperation structures
      • 3.4.1. European Scientific Facilities and Organisations
      • 3.4.2. Other Multilateral Programmes
  • 4. The EU Research and Development Programs
    • 4.1. The Framework Programme conception : structure and general characteristics
    • 4.2. Thematic evolution
  • 5. Strengths and weaknesses of the EU intervention : a general overview
  • 6. Conclusion

The North American "Innovation Space" : A Work in Progress ? 153
Paul R. Dufour, International Science Policy Foundation, Ottawa, Canada

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Characteristics of the S&T structure in North America
    • 2.1. The United States and Technological Leadership
    • 2.2. Canada and its Changing Image as a Knowledge-Based Society
    • 2.3. Establishing Mexico’s Place in the Innovation Arena
  • 3. A North American Research Diaspora ?
  • 4. What are Some Key Elements of a Regional Research Space ?
  • 5. Emerging Signs of North American Collaboration in S&T
    • 5.1. The Data Picture
    • 5.2. On-going Networking Among Research Centers
    • 5.3. Education and Skills Mobility
    • 5.4. Promotion of Common Systems of Scientific Policy and Technical Issues
  • 6. Reaching Beyond the North American Sphere
  • 7. An Agenda for a North American Innovation Approach

Science and Technology Policy in Japan 167
Yukiko Fukasaku, OECD, Paris, France
Sachiko Ishizaka, International Council for Science (ICSU), France

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Features of the Early Development of Science and Technology Policy
  • 3. Post-war Catch up and S&T Policy
  • 4. Japanese Science and Technology in the Recent Decades
    • 4.1. R&D Expenditures
    • 4.2. Human Resources
    • 4.3. Research Outputs
  • 5. Framework for Science and Technology Policy Making and the Current Policy Trends
    • 5.1. Administrative Structure
    • 5.2. The Science and Technology Basic Plan
  • 6. Issues for Science and Technology Policy in the New Century

Changing Innovation System of Economies in Transition (CEE) 185
A. Inzelt, Innovation Research Center (IKU), Budapest, Hungary
T. Balogh, R&D Strategy Department, Ministry of Education, Budapest, Hungary

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Global Position of the Region
    • 2.1. General
    • 2.2. Macro Economic Indicators
      • 2.2.1. GDP per Capita
      • 2.2.2. Private Sector Share of GDP
      • 2.2.3. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
      • 2.2.4. External Debt/Exports
      • 2.2.5. Investment Rate
      • 2.2.6. Unemployment Rate
      • 2.2.7. Change of Labor Productivity in Industry
      • 2.2.8. Share of Exports to Non-transition Countries
    • 2.3. Technology Indicators
      • 2.3.1. Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD)
      • 2.3.2. Total R&D Personnel
      • 2.3.3. Higher Education R&D Personnel
      • 2.3.4. US Patents
  • 3. International R&D Consequences of Opening the Borders
    • 3.1. Importance of International R&D Co-operation and Problems in the Past
    • 3.2. Exceptions : Rare Flowers of Isolation
    • 3.3. 1989-1991 : The Iron Curtain Disappears
    • 3.4. CEE Participation in the EU 5th RTD Framework Programme
  • 4. Some Changes in the National Innovation Systems
    • 4.1. Changing Institutional System
    • 4.2. Mass Brain Drain from the CEE Academic Sector - Typical in Phase I
  • 5. Moving out from Transition Crises

Science and Technology Policy in UNESCO : A Historical Overview 207
Vladislav P. Kotchetkov, UNESCO consultant, Russia

  • 1. Genesis of science and technology policy in UNESCO
  • 2. Science policy consultancy services
  • 3. Science policy publications
  • 4. Regional Ministerial Conferences
  • 5. Information Exchange and Normative–making Activities
  • 6. Training in science and technology policy
  • 7. Termination of UNESCO Science and Technology Policy Programme

Science and Technology Policy in the United Nations System : A Historical Overview 231
Vladislav P. Kotchetkov, UNESCO consultant, Russia

  • 1. The 1963 Geneva Conference
  • 2. The UNCSTD preparation
    • 2.1. Chronology
    • 2.2. UN Regional conferences
    • 2.3. Surrounding scientific meetings
  • 3. The Vienna Programme of Action
  • 4. UNCSTD Results and Post-Vienna Activity
    • 4.1. Intergovernmental Committee on Science and Technology for Development
    • 4.2. Advisory Committee on Science and Technology for Development
    • 4.3. ACC Task Force on Science and Technology for Development
    • 4.4. Centre for Science and Technology for Development
    • 4.5. UN Financing System for Science and Technology
  • 5. Further restructuring of UN in the economic and social fields
  • 6. Commission on Science and Technology for Development
  • 7. Science and technology policy in the work of UN bodies
  • 8. Conclusion

Transition to Sustainability in the Developing Countries : The Role of Science 249
Carlos B. Aguirre, National Academy of Sciences of Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia

  • 1. Introduction : The New World, Present and Future Scenarios
  • 2. Sustainable Development
  • 3. A scenario of Transition to Sustainability
  • 4. Innovation in a Scenario of Transition to Sustainability : Challenges and Opportunities
    • 4.1. The Context
    • 4.2. Innovation in a Scenario of Transition to Sustainability
    • 4.3. Challeneges
    • 4.4. Opportunities
    • 4.5. The National Innovation Systems in Developing Countries : An Overview
  • 5. The Role of Science in a Scenario of Transition to Sustainability in Developing Countries
  • 6. Science Policy for a Transition to Sustainability in Developing Countries
    • 6.1. Science Policy or Research Policy : Why a Policy at All ?
    • 6.2. The Role of the State
    • 6.3. Main Science Policy Issues
      • 6.3.1. Policy Objectives
      • 6.3.2. Research Projects
      • 6.3.3. Independence of Research
      • 6.3.4. Image of Science
      • 6.3.5. Human Resources for Science
      • 6.3.6. Centers of Excellence
      • 6.3.7. Internationalization of Science
      • 6.3.8. Institutional Structure
      • 6.3.9. Management of Science
    • 6.3.10. Investing in Science
  • 7. Conclusion

Science and Society:Africa’s Perspective 286
Shem Oyoo Wandiga, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya
Eric Onyango Odada, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Missed Opportunities
  • 3. Population and Science
  • 4. Combating Poverty
  • 5. Improved Human Health
  • 6. Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 7. Promoting Human Sustainable Development
  • 8. Atmosphere is Becoming Polluted
  • 9. Protecting Water Resources
  • 10. Desertification and Land Degradation
  • 11. Energy for Sustainable Development
  • 12. Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes Management
  • 13. Solid and Liquid Wastes Management
  • 14. Management of Radioactive Wastes
  • 15. Biotechnology and the Future
  • 16. Mobilizing Resources for Africa’s Development

Index 307

About EOLSS 315

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